China Leaders

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Chi.gifNationalist China

unplaced as of yet

Fan Zuxian

  • a regioalist but also a member of the GMD's Shandong provincial committee (2.119)
    • received arms and other supplies from the Chongqing government
    • powerful guerilla force
    • because of him, the central government was able to restore the provincial government in March 1938
    • however, upon his death in November 1938, his forces defected to the Communists

Admiral Shen Hunglie

  • new governor of Shandong in March 1938
  • regional militarist (2.119)
  • represented the GMD party and government int he occupied areas (2.119)
  • had little appreciation of the intracacies of guerilla warfare and little inclination to learn about them (2.119)

Zhang Yinwu

  • Baoding Military Academy graduate (2.119)
    • former mayor of Beiping unde regional militarists
    • minjun (militia), organized in December 1937, expanded to a force of 30 000 men in 1939

Lu Zhonglin, Yu Xuezhong

  • regional militarists (2.119)
  • represented the GMD party and government int he occupied areas (2.119)
  • these generals had little appreciation of the intracacies of guerilla warfare and little inclination to learn about them (2.119)

Liao Ang

(Source)

  • Commander of the Reorganized 76th Division of the Kuomintang forces under Hu Tsung-nan, was later captured in a battle at Chingchien on October 11, 1947

Deng Yenda

Source (uglychinese.org)

  • possible 3rd party founder? assassinated by Chiang
  • One of the GMD's more radical but non-Communist generals
  • complained in March 1927 that the party and the whole future of the Chinese revolution were endangered because military influences had outpaced the developement of the party, the government, and everything else during the course of the Northern Expedition. (2.8)

Wang Jingwei

  • left leaning
  • would later defect to the Japanese

Ai Ai

Generals.dk

  • commanded 92 Div, 1945

Jiang Guangnai

  • led the 19th Route Army on Jan 6, 1932

Zhang Zhizhong and Yu Jishi

  • organized into 5th corps in 1932

Zhang Zhizhong

  • (1891-May 16, 1940)
  • commanded 87th div in 1932
  • commanded the 38th division in 1937
  • in July 1945, was Minister of the Political Department

Yu Jishi

  • commanded 88th div in 1932
  • commanded the 74th corps during the civil war

An Chunshan/Zhunshan?

Generals.dk

  • commanded 31st Div, 1944

An Enbu/Enpu?

Generals.dk

An Huading/Huating?

Generals.dk

An Yongzhang/Yongchang?

Generals.dk

General Tai Yung-kwan

  • Gu Zhutong's protégé
  • defected to the communists, allowing them to cross the Yangtze during the civil war

General Gui Yongqing

Commodore Lin Zun

  • admiral, defected to communists at Nanjing

General Xia Wei

  • under Bai Chongxi's command

General Zhang Zizhong

(1.151)

  • his portrait hung in Chiang's study
  • old-fashioned field commander
  • as mayor of Tianjin, he bargained with the Japanese
  • had a brilliant victory at Taierzhuang and fell in defense of his country

General Fang Xianjue

(1.151, uglychinese.org)

  • conducted a gallant defense of Hengyang for 40 days against overwhelming odds with his 10th corps (2. "10th Army"), which lost most of its forces in that defence

Feng Zhian

  • commanded the 37th division in 1937

Zhao Dengru

  • commanded the 132nd division in 1937

Guan Linzheng

  • commanded the 25th division in mar 21 1937

Wang Yongcheng

Source: uglychinese.org

  • commander of the 37th Route Army in 1932
  • defected in oct 11, 1932 to the japanese in manchuria

Zhang Zhen

  • 66th Corps Commander during the First Burma Campaign

Tang Shouzi

  • commanded the New 30th Division in the 2nd Burma Campaign after the capture of Myitkyina

Hu Su

  • commanded the New 30th Division in the 2nd Burma Campaign

Li Hong

  • commanded the New 38th Division in the 2nd Burma Campaign

General <Chieu Ching-Chun> (Jiu Jingzhuan?)

(Source: Generals.dk)

  • briefly commanded the new 1st army in feb 1943
    • if it's jiu jingzhuan, then it's a Whampoa commander who didn't render full cooperation to his fellow generals during the huai-hai campaign (1.262)

Han Fuqu

(-Jan 1938)

  • originally part of Feng Yuxiang's army but defected to the Nationalists in April 1929 (2.17)
  • Shandong warlord who colluded with the Japanese and gave Shandong to them without resistance
  • was summarily executed because of this
  • his territories had a noticeable control over communist activity (Source uglychinese.org)

Shi Yousan

  • originaly part of Feng Yuxiang's army but defected to the Nationalists in April 1929 (2.17)

Lai Shihuang

(Source uglychinese.org)

  • 13th Corps Chief

Wang Tianpei

(Source uglychinese.org)

  • 10th Corps Chief

Sun Dianying

(uglychinese.org)

  • in the Sino-Japanese war, he was given command of the new 5th Army, and he manoeuvred between the communists and the central government, even giong over to the japanese for a time (3.218)
  • he had contacts everywhere and even bought goods from Shanghai (3.218)
  • during Civil War, commanded the newly organized 4th Army

Hao Pengju

(uglychinese.org)

  • surrendered to the Japanese in 1941
  • became governor of Huaihai Province in the Japanese Puppet Government of China
  • became sympathetic to the communists
  • during the civil war, Chiang gave him the command of the 6th Route Army, unaware that he was colluding with the Communists

Li Zefen

(uglychinese.org)

  • commanded the 5th Div which was under the control of the 94th Corps

Zhang Chong

(uglychinese.org)

  • corps commander
  • sent to Jilin province during the civil war

Liang Huashen

(uglychinese.org)

  • commanded 71st Corps during the civil war

Chen Xinda

(uglychinese.org)

  • commanded New 5th Corps in oct 1947, which was destroyed by the communists

Zhou Fucheng

(uglychinese.org)

  • commanded 8th corps conglomerate during the civil war

Xiang Fengwu

(uglychinese.org)

  • commanded the 71st Corps during the civil war

Liu Anqi

  • commanded 7th corps conglomerate during the civil war

Zheng Dongguo

(uglychinese.org)

  • commanded an army in the 2nd Burma Campaign
  • commanded 1st corps conglomerate, consisting of:
    • 6 divisions, or 100 000 men

Zeng Zesheng

(uglychinese.org)

  • during the siege of Jinzhou, commanded the 60th Corps

Liu Yuezhang

(uglychinese.org)

  • during the siege of Jinzhou, commanded the 52nd Corps

Qin Qirong

(-August 1942) (Source)

  • militant anti-communist in central Shandong
  • commited suicide rather than be capture by the Communists.
  • also mentioned (3.230)

Hunan

Tang Shengzhi

  • Hunanese warlord (3.16)

Cheng Qian

  • appointed as vice-chief of supreme staff based on the numerically impressive Hunan forces he commanded
  • transferred from Chief of the gneral staff to the command of the First War Area in North China
  • regarded by Chiang's close friends as a fan-tung, a ne'er-do-well (1. p.124)
  • did nothing of significance until he defected to the communists in 1949

He Jian

  • Hunanese warlord
  • his territories noticeably had communist activity under control (Source uglychinese.org)

Guominjun

The Guominjun (Feng's army,) had a reputation of being one of the better trained and equipped armies of the pre-Nationalist era.

Feng Yuxiang "Christian General"

  • used to be warlord of Northwestern region of china
  • Knew a lot of the armies around Shandong
  • But complained a lot that neither his armies nor the KMT armies trusted one another
  • not particularly loyal to chiang
  • NOT part of whampoa clique

Song Xinian

  • commanded part of Chiang's forces stationed in Chongqing which collapsed during the civil war (1 p.269)

Zhang Ningfu

  • (-Mar 1947)
  • got killed by Communists in southern Shandong
  • was leading the 74th (US equipped) of the Zhongyang Army

General Wu Jiwei

  • Capable and famous fighting general

General Chen Mingren

  • commanded a crack American-trained army during the Civil War
  • defeated Lin Biao's communist forces at Sipingjie (uglychinese.org)
  • dismissed Chen Mingren on the pretext of embezzlement

Sun Lianzhong

  • NOT in whampoa
  • great leader, served valiantly
  • suiyuan general? (1.246)
  • (uglychinese.org) in 1943, commanded the 2nd Army Group, which consisted of:
    • 31st Corps - these were handed over to Hu Zongnan in 1945
    • 68th Corps
  • described as one of "China's best senior field commanders" (1.248)

Liao Yaoxiang

  • commanded the New 22nd Division
  • one of the heroes of the Northern Burma Campaign
  • commanded New Sixth Army, part of the X-Force in the 2nd Burma Campaign
  • one of the best-educated and most battle-experienced younger Chinese generals (184)

General Yang Jie

  • for a while stationed in Moscow as Chinese ambassador (169)

Lt. Gen Sun Liren

(November 19, 1899–November 19, 1990) Source: Wikipedia: Sun Liren, Some responses to a book on Sun Liren

  • NOT in whampoa
  • commander of New 38th Division (which was assigned to the 66th corps)
  • participated in First Burma Campaign
  • allowed the force to conduct an excellent retreat to British India
  • commanded New First Army, part of the X-Force
  • one of the best-educated and most battle-experienced younger Chinese generals (1.184)
  • I would make him skill 4 as well.

[1]

  • turned back an offensive in Manchuria, but shortly after, was relieved of command and sent to a training program at Nanjing (1.256)

General Dai Anlan

  • commander of 200th div (GMD's only mechanized formation)
  • participated in First Burma Campaign
  • recognized by Americans as man of "ability and force and considerable courage"
  • 5th and 6th armies were "lost" in first Burma Campaign
    • the divisions in them were the 22nd and 36th divs (correction, 38th, NOT 36th), among others

Lt. Gen Gan Lichu

  • commanded a few divs in the First Burma Campaign

Hu Zongnan and Tang Enbo

  • commanded 300 000 men (16 armies) in the NW


Gen. Wei Lihuang

  • commanded 100 000 (Y-Force) in the Second Burma Campaign
  • May 11, '44 crossed Salween
  • in civil war, in Manchuria, was overly cautious
  • in civil war, commanded 150 000 men (12 divs and 3 cav brigades)
  • IMHO, average talent
  • had a crony: General Chen Tie

Gen Huang Wei

  • commanded 12th army group during civil war

Gen Li Yannian

  • commanded 6th army

Gen Liu Ruming

  • commanded the 143rd Division in 1937
  • commanded 8th army

Wang Jun, Hu Zhongnan, Li Jilan, Shen Jiucheng

  • all assigned to fight the communists in '36.

United States of America

Joseph W. "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell

  • served in China [Jan 1942-Oct 44]
  • good leadership ability
  • sound tactics and strategy
  • can speak chinese
  • poor fit for Chiang tho, because he hated corruption and inefficiency and he wanted to just slash and trash it, and Chiang would have none of it
  • also had difficulty working with the british

Liu Zhi

  • a man "of no particular ability" (skill 1)
  • one of the most senior members of the Whampoa group (2.105)

Whampoa Clique

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek

- micromanages everything - places loyalty above proficiency when assigning tasks - an average leader (i'd put him at skill 3) - excellent diplomat (at least compared to his contemporaries)

Lt. Gen Du Yuming

  • commanded afew divs in the First Burma Campaign
  • blech, not very talented (skill 1)
  • tows the party line, usually gets awesome commands
  • famous for "leading his regiment from behind", heh (1.261)
  • during the civil war, led 100 000 men (uglychinese.org)

Xiong Shihui

(commanded a division/army/army corps?) - arrogant - directory of generalissimo's HQ in Manchuria, in Chinese Civil War

Qian Dajun

  • one of the most senior members of the Whampoa group (2.105)

Jiang Dingwen

  • one of the most senior members of the Whampoa group (2.105)

Gen. Chen Cheng

  • man of great personal integrity
  • severe field commander
  • commanded the 14th and 18th armies during the 1930s
  • when he became manchurian commander, he was hardhanded and fired a lot of corrupt officers, which quickly fled to the communists
  • described as "capable" (1.256) and an "able commander", even by Mao (3.90)
  • failed in pacifying Manchuria during the Civil War
  • briefly commander of the 9th war zone
  • also commander of the defense of Hankou and, later, the 6th War area
  • commanded the 14th and 18th armies, which he led in the '30s
  • ((Chen Cheng had his own faction, with the following well known Nationalist Generals)) (2.105)
    • Luo Zhuoying
    • Fang Tian
    • Jue Hanqian
    • Li Jilan
    • Hu Lian

Hu Zongnan

(1896-1962) Source: (uglychinese.org)

  • being in (2.105) implicitly puts him in the Whampoa group
  • commanded the 1st division in 1932 (source: uglychinese.org)
  • commanded the 1st Army, which was decimated in the Shanghai campaign
  • operated out of Xi'an
  • at height of his power, controlled ~27 divs
  • stationed in Shanxi for a majority of the war for two purposes -- to blockade the communists and to block the Japanese
  • ((Hu Zongnan had a faction, whose supporters were the following generals. he built it from scratch during the war:)) (2.105)
    • Li Wen
    • Li Tiejun
    • Luo Lie
    • Sheng Wen
    • Yuan Pu
  • during the Civil War, he commanded at least: (uglychinese.org)
    • 27th Corps
    • 1st Corps
    • 53rd Div
    • 61st Div
    • 15th Corps
    • 4th Army, commanded by Sun Dianying
    • 85th Corps, consisting of
      • 110th Div
  • Born in Zhejiang (Source)

Gen. Gu Zhutong

  • replaced Chen Cheng as leader of Manchurian theatre during the Civil War
  • not particularly talented
  • staunch supporter of Chiang
  • commander of the 3rd War Zone (south of the Yangtze) (3.210)
  • close and trusted associate of Chiang kai-shek (3.210)

Gen. Yu Hanmou

  • not particularly talented
  • staunch supporter of Chiang
  • commanded 7th War Zone

Gen. Fan Hanjie

  • one of Whampoa's ablest commanders (1. 259)
  • commanded 6th corps conglomerate in civil war (uglychinese.org), consisting of:
    • 14 divisions, or about 150 000 men
  • caught by the communists at the siege of Jinzhou

Gens. Li Mi, Jiu Jingzhuan, Huang Bodao

  • all did not trust each other

Gen Huang Bodao

- commanded 10 divs in the Battle of Xuzhou - died at end of battle

General Tang Enbo (as above)

Sources: (Generals.dk, uglychinese.org)

  • Born 1900 in Wuyi, Zhejiang
  • died 1954
  • deputy commander of 1st War Zone from '42-'44
  • based in Henan until kicked out (prolly via Ichigo)
  • CiC of GMT troops sometime
  • commanded 13th Army, which expanded to 8 armies (2.105)
  • commanded 30 divs during Ichigo
  • has a bit of a reputation for being a butcher

((Tang Enbo also had his own faction followers who were generals, who are listed below:)) (2.105)

    • Chen Daqing
    • Shi Jue
    • Wang Zhonglian
    • Zhang Yaoming

Guan Lingwei, Wang Jun, Mao Bingwen

  • central army, fought against the communists with the Northeastern (Fengtian) army in '36

Guan Lingwei

  • fought against communists in '36 in battle of Jingyuan

Kang Ze

  • commanded new 28th division during the First Burma Campaign

Fengtian faction

  • the Northeastern Army had a reputation of being one of the better trained and equipped armies of the pre-Nationalist era.

Zhang Xueliang "Young Marshal"

Wikipedia

  • kidnapped Chiang in the Xi'an incident

Zhang Xuesi

  • Zhang Xueliang's brother
  • defected to the communists after Zhang Xueliang's house arrest (uglychinese.org)

Lü Zhengcao

  • defected to the communists after Zhang Xueliang's house arrest (uglychinese.org)

Wan Yi

  • defected to the communists after Zhang Xueliang's house arrest (uglychinese.org)

Ma Zhanshan

  • commanded 1st Cavalry Brigade
  • Did it in Qiqihar, Heilongjiang (his home province)

Yang Hucheng

  • second in command
  • a warlord in northwest China (3.100)

Yu Xuezhong

Generals.dk

  • army commander
  • mentioned in (3.138, 3.230)
  • in central Shandong(Source)
    • disguised himself as a shepherd among the Communists as they overrun his base in 1942

Miao Zhengliu

  • commanded the 57th corps

Suiyuan Faction

Fu Zuoyi

Wikipedia

  • pretty good
  • during the civil war, communist purposefully avoided him because of his reputation
  • "hard-fighting"
  • i suppose we should make him good defensively.
  • commanded the 7th army group and the 35th army in jan 6 1932

Sichuan/Xikang Faction

  • In Sichuan, the central gov't only had 40 000-50 000 men

Liu Wenhui

  • mostly inactive, since his warlord domain was so far away from the front line
  • commanded 2 divisions on the Sichuan Xikang borders. Described by an American military attache as "the best armed soldiers I have seen in China" (2.116)
  • mostly didn't bother with KMT, and KMT left him alone
  • wanted KMT to go after Japanese than Chinese communists tho
  • commanded the 24th corps (uglyChinese.org) in 1935

Pan Wenhua

  • had 100 000 men in Sichuan
  • wanted KMT to go after Japanese than Chinese communists
  • commanded the 23rd corps (uglyChinese.org) in 1935

Deng Xihou

  • wanted KMT to go after Japanese than Chinese communists
  • commanded the 45th corps (uglyChinese.org) in 1935

Liu Xiang

  • Dominant warlord in Sichuan
  • died in 1938 (2.87)

Wang Zanxu

  • 1938: governor of Sichuan (2.87-88)
  • commanded the 44th corps (uglyChinese.org) in 1935

Yang Sen

Tang Shizun

  • Ah Xiang's placement in the "Sichuan Prov armies" paragraphs suggests that he was a Sichuan commander
  • commanded the 21st corps (uglyChinese.org) in 1935

Sun Zhen

  • Ah Xiang's placement in the "Sichuan Prov armies" paragraphs suggests that he was a Sichuan commander
  • commanded the 41st corps (uglyChinese.org) in 1935

Li Jiayu

Guangxi Clique

  • 4th Army of Guangdong was really good.

Xue Yue

  • Cantonese General
  • wary of loyalty to Chiang
  • commanded the 9th War Area
  • called the Tiger of Changsha, because he defeated three Japanese attacks on the city

Li Zongren

  • during the northern expedition, commanded the 7th Army Corps "Flying Army" (1. p 39)
  • commanded the 5th War Area (north of the Yangtze) (3.210)
  • won victory against Japanese at Taierzhuang
  • other victories include Tsao-yang (Zaoyang, Hubei Province, May 1939), northern Hebei, and southern Henan
  • accomplished strategist (i'd put him at skill 4)
  • not loyal to Chiang at all, but loyal to China
  • reform-minded
  • very wary of the Communists, urged Chiang to eliminate Communist menace way back in 1928-9

Bai Chongxi

  • also one of the best leaders in China
  • very very experienced general (skill 4)
  • not loyal to chiang
  • reform-minded
  • deputy to Cheng Qian
  • during the civil war, was "pigeon-holed in an office without power (1. 244)
    • this office was probably minister of defense (1.247)
    • threatened to withdraw his support of Li when Li Zongren ran for vice president (1.247)
    • Chiang then dismissed him as defense minister (1.247)
  • was then given command of troops in the central China area (by VP Li Zongren?) (1.247)
  • he was disgusted at the disunity of command and resigned from the position
  • Later, at President Chiang's request, he was reappointed the commander-in-chief of Central China command (1.248)

General Li Jishen

  • early Nov '43, Li arranging for possible coordinated action in case of collapse of Chongqing gov't
  • Chiang saw this as a coup and so removed Li's office.
  • Only then did Li get really mad at central gov't

General Huang Shaoxiong

  • Pledged support of Chiang's efforts to cleanse the GMT of communist elements(1. p41)
  • possibly AKA Huang Shaohung? (2.16)

Gen Zhang Fakui

  • August 1926 - with Li Zongren, brilliantly defeats Wu Peifu's forces around Dingsijaio and Heshenjiao
  • commanded 4th war zone
  • In the Guangxi-Guandong military group (1. p51)
  • pro-Communists (3.70)

Shanxi

- the Shanxi army had a reputation of being one of the better trained and equipped armies of the pre-Nationalist era.

Yan Xishan

Wikipedia

  • micromanaged like Chiang
  • thought of worst enemies as Commies first, then Nationalists, then Japanese, IIRC
  • noted for his experience in artillery
  • also noted that in battles where he was in command caused lots of casualties for both sides
  • in civil war, commanded 13 divisions (38 000 men) (uglychinese.org)
    • at the end of august, some 35 000 of these were killed in communist attacks by Deng Xiaoping and Liu Bocheng

Li Fuying

  • one of Yan's most trusted commanders
  • had to be executed to pacify public opinion, because Yan did really crappy defending his land from the Japanese.

Xu Yongchang (1889-1959)

Generals.dk

  • Commanded 12th Route Army
  • "had neither conspicuous talent nor personality" (1. p124)

Hu Sanyu

Shi Zebo

Peng Shubin?

Xibei San Ma

  • In Qinghai & Gansu provinces, Ma Bufang & Ma Buqing brothers possessed 30,000 troops and 100000 militia.

Ma Bufang

  • father of Ma Jiyuan
  • based in Qinghai

General Ma Jiyuan

  • Muslim
  • commanded 20 000 cavalrymen during the civil war

Ma Hongkui

  • based in Gansu/Ningxia? (115)

Ma Hongbin

  • based in Ningxia

Ma Fuxiang

  • more loyal to Chiang than the others

Yunnan

60th army is yunnanese

  • "Dian-jun", the Yunnanese army, designated the 184th Division, of the 50th corps, defected to the Communists in Haiching, Liaoning Province on May 29th (uglychinese.org)
  • an army under the command of his son (Long Shengwu) actually clashed with KMT 5th army in Dec'44

Long Yun

  • Warlord of all Yunnan
  • had ambitions in Vietnam and Burma

Long Shengwu

Sun Du

  • during civil war, led the 60th and 92nd corps (both Yunnanese corps) to Manchuria
  • group army commander of Lu Han's army

Lu Han

  • army which was shipped from Haiphong of Vietnam during civil war

Chc.gif Communist China

Zhang Guotao

Wikipedia

  • Joined the party in 1921
  • Wanted to take the army to Xinjiang, where it would join with the Soviet Union
  • Mao said this would marginalize the party and so opposed it
  • Zhang went ahead with it anyway and was brutually defeated in early 1936 at the hands of the Xibei San Ma
  • Zhang went tail between legs to Mao where he was ridiculed and accused of acts of betrayal
  • frustrated, he defected to the GMD in 1938
  • after the defeat of the GMD in 1949, he fled to Hong Kong

Lü Zhengcao

(3.198)

  • Manchurian born
  • A regimental commander separated from his nationalist 53rd Army during its retreat south
  • After hisdetachment suffered considerable losses to the Japanese, Lü made contact with Communists and rose in the Communist ranks.

Xinjiang

Tibet

Sources

1. Liu, F. F. (1956). A Military History of Modern China: 1924-1949, brown book with golden horse, Princeton University: New Jersey, ISBN: 0313230129
2. Ch’I, H. S. (1982). Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937-1945. University of Michigan: Michigan
3. Eastman, L. E. et. al. (1991). The Nationalist Era in China: 1927-1949. Cambridge University: Cambridge
4. Sih, P. K.T. (1977). Nationalist China during the Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945. Exposition: New York
5. Whitson, W. W. (1973). The Chinese High Command: A History of Communist Military Politics, 1927-71. Praeger: New York
6. Yellow China Year Book 1936
7. Red China Year Book 1936
8. Yellow China Year Book 1939
9. Ah Xiang. uglyChinese.org